संस्कृत सुभाषित

सुभाषित (सु+भाषित = सुन्दर ढंग से कही गयी बात) ऐसे शब्द-समूह, वाक्य या अनुच्छेदों को कहते हैं जिसमें कोई बात सुन्दर ढंग से या बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण तरीके से कही गयी हो। सुवचन, सूक्ति, अनमोल वचन, आदि शब्द भी इसके लिये प्रयुक्त होते हैं।

संस्कृत सुभाषित - भाग १८

७६) जरा

आदौ चित्ते तत: काये सतां सम्पद्यते जरा।
असतां तु पुन: काये नैव चित्ते कदाचन॥

Old age sets first into the mind and then into the body in the case of a good person even though the body becomes old and the mind never matures for the wicked.

७७) साधु

इन्द्रियाणि च संयम्य रागद्वेषविवर्जित:।
समदु:खसुख: शान्त: तत्त्वज्ञ: साधुरुच्यते॥

Having brought the senses under control and being free from love and hatred, treating equally joy and sorrow, and being at peace (with all), is said to be the good man who understands the essential nature of all things.


कर्मोक्तिनर्मनिर्माणै: प्रात: प्रात: प्रधावताम्।
धनं धनं प्रलपतां निधनं विस्मृतं नृणाम्॥

By creating the pastime of various actions and running (to and fro) from morning to morning, talking of nothing but money, men forget that (such a thing as) death exists.


विप्रो वृक्षस्तस्य मूलं च सन्ध्या वेदा: शाखा धर्मकर्माणि पत्रम्।
तस्मान्मूलं यत्नतो रक्षणीयं छिन्नो मूले न्नैव शाखा न पत्रम्॥

Vipra is like a tree, whose roots are prayers* The Vedas are its branches, calls of duty as leaves, Therefore, diligently keep the roots secure, Cutting off roots, neither branches nor leaves endure, Samdhya*.


अभ्यासाद्धर्यते कुलं शीलेन धर्यते।
गुणेर्मित्राणि धार्यन्ते अक्ष्णा क्रोधश्च धार्यते॥

Knowledge is retained by constant practice; a family is held together by virtuous conduct; friendship is kept by good qualities; anger is evident from the knitting of the eye-brows.

८१) उद्वाह

परस्परेण स्पृहणीयशोभं न चेदिदं द्वन्द्वमयोजयिष्यत्।
अस्मिन् द्वये रूपविधानयत्न: पत्यु:प्रजानां वितथोऽभविष्यत्॥

If the Lord of Creation had not united this couple, possessed of a beauty which each one of them well might envy, then his efforts in dowering them with such (exquisite) beauty would have been all in vain.

८२) गुरु

इमं लोकं मातृभक्त्या पितृभक्त्या तु मध्यमम्।
गुरुशुश्रूषया त्वेव ब्रह्मलोकं समश्नुते॥

By honouring his mother he gains this world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman.

८३) मित्रम्

आक्रोशसमो लोके सुहृदन्यो न विद्यते।
यस्तु दुष्कृतमादाय सुकृतं स्वं प्रयच्छति॥

In this world there is not to be found a friend equal to an abusive person; for he takes away all our demerits and gives back in their place all the goodness he possess.

८४) मित्रम्

आ जीवनास्तात् प्रणया: कोपास्तत्क्षणभङ्गुरा:।
परित्यागाश्च नि:सङ्ग भवन्ति हि महात्मनाम्॥

With noble persons friendship lasts for the lifetime; anger is transitory and lasts for a moment only; (and) they have no desire for wealth.

८५) सुहृद

इष्टं ददाति गृह्णाति कार्यमाख्याति पृच्छति।
भुङ्क्ते भोजयते चैव षड्विधं मित्रलक्षणम्॥

He gives what is liked by us and also takes it similarly, he tells us all his (private) affairs and enquiries the same of us, he takes food with us and also invites us to die with him; thus these are the six characteristics of a (good) friend.

८६) क्षमा

आक्रोशपरिवादाभ्यां विहिसन्त्यबुधा बुधात्।
वक्ता पापमुपादत्ते क्षममाणो विमुच्यते॥

Fools seek to injure the wise by false reproaches and evil speech. The consequence is, that by this they take upon themselves the sins of the wise, while the latter, freed from their sins are forgiven.

८७) विधिवैपरीत्य

आखु: कैलासशैलं तुलयति करटस्ताक्ष्र्यमांसाभिलाक्षी बभ्रुर्लाङ्गूलं चलयति चपलस्तक्षकाहि जिघांसु:।
भेक: पारं यियासुर्भुजगमपि महाधस्मरस्याम्बुराशे: प्रायेणासन्नपात: स्मरति समुचितं कर्म न क्षुद्रकर्मा॥

A rat attempts to life the Kailasa mountain; a crow desires to eat the flesh of the king of birds, Garuda; an inchneumon foolishly shakes the top of the tail of the mighty serpent Taksaka, with a view to killing him; a frog desires to cross the ocean, the great devourer, with the help of a serpent; thus mostly, when adversity is at hand, a creature of low stature remembers not what is proper to do in various situations.

८८) वैरम्

आचरन् बहुभिर्वैरम् अल्पकैरपि नश्यति।
जनै: प्रत्यायितोऽमात्यं प्रेतमित्यत्यजन्नृप:॥

If a person cultivates enmity with a number of people, he perishes, though the enemies may be insignificant people. The king, who was infused with confidence by the people abandoned his minister, considering him to be a corpse.

८९) आचार

आचार: परमो धर्म आचार: परमं तप:।
आचार परमं ज्ञानम् आचारात् किं न साध्यते॥

Good conduct is the highest mortality, it is the highest penance and it is the highest knowledge. What cannot be achieved through good conduct?

९०) आचार

आचारसंभवो धर्मो धर्माद् वेदा: समुत्थिता:।
वेदैर्यज्ञा: समुत्पन्ना यज्ञैर्देवा: प्रतिष्ठिता:॥

Dharma is born of good conduct, the Veda-s (scriptures) have sprung from Dharma alone; the holy sacrifices are born of (performed with) the Veda-s, the gods are established (propitiated) by the sacrifices.

९१) आचार

आचारप्रभवो धर्मो नृणां श्रेयस्करो महान्।
इहलोके परा कीर्ति: परत्र परमं सुखम्॥

Dharma is born of good conduct, it is that which brings the highest welfare to man; great is the fame here that he gets by observing it, and supreme beatitude in the world yet to come.

९२) दरिद्रता

कष्टा वृत्ति: पराधीना कष्टो वासो निराश्रय:।
निर्धनो व्यवसायश्च सर्वकष्टा दरिद्रता॥

Service for livelihood in dependence is difficult. Living somehow without a support is difficult. Undertaking any work without money is difficult. Poverty is all difficult.

९३) दुष्कर्म

कलहान्तानि हम्र्याणि कुवाक्यान्तं च सौहृदम्।
कुराजान्तानि राष्टराणि कुकर्मान्तं यशो नृणाम्॥

Quarrels destroy homes. Bad words destroys friendship. Bad kings ruin empires and the fame of men gets destroyed by a bad act.

९४) दुस्सङ्ग

अकुर्वन्तोपि पापानि शुचय: पापसंश्रयात्।
परपापैर्विनश्यन्ति मत्स्या नागहृदे यथा॥

Like the fish in a snake-pond, the pure, though not committing any sin will perish by the sin of others due to their association with the wicked.

९५) विवाह

आदौ कुलं परीक्षते ततो विद्यां ततो वय:।
शीलं वनं ततो रूपं पश्चात् विवाहयेत्॥

First he should carefully examine the nobility of the family, then the learning and next the age (of the bridegroom), next comes his wealth and then his personal beauty and the region to which he belongs—then should the marriage alliance be made.

९६) आचार

अग्निहोत्रं गृहं क्षेत्रं गर्भिणीं वृद्धबालकौ।
रिक्तहस्तेन नोपेयाद् राजानं देवतां गुरुम्॥

One should not come empty-handed near the holy fire, a house, a field, a pregnant woman, an old man, a child, a sovereign, a deity and a guru.

९७) गुरु

अन्नपानादिभिश्चैव वस्त्रालंकारभूषणै:।
गन्धमाल्यैर्विचित्रैश्च गुरुं तत्र प्रपूजयेत्॥

One should honour one’s preceptor there with food, drink, etc. as well as clothes and decorating materials, pleasing unguents and flower garlands.

९८) गुरु

अवद्यमुक्ते पथि य: प्रवर्तते प्रवर्तत्यन्यजनं च नि:स्पृह:।
स सेवितव्य: स्वहितैषिणा गुरु: स्वयं तरैस्तारयितुं क्षम परम्॥

The preceptor (guru) should be resorted to, by a person desiring his own welfare, who ever selfless, remains in the right path and leads others also on into it, who is capable of liberating himself as well as others from the bonds of the world.

९९) गुरु

एकस्यैव गुरोर्दृष्ट्या द्वाभ्यां वापि लभेत यत्।
न तत् तिसृभिरष्टाभि: सहस्रेणापि कस्यचित्॥

With the glance (careful attention) bestowed by a guru (preceptor) or by two (glances), what is gained? the same (gain) is not obtained by someone with the assistance of three, eight or even a thousand (teachers).

१००) गुरु

एकाक्षरप्रदातारं यो गुरुं नैव मन्यते।
श्वानयोनिशतं गत्वा चाण्डालेष्वभिजायते॥

Who does not consider as a guru a person who taught him even a single syllable will be re-born in a family of caëòäla-s after having been first re-born hundreds of times as a dog.