संस्कृत सुभाषित

सुभाषित (सु+भाषित = सुन्दर ढंग से कही गयी बात) ऐसे शब्द-समूह, वाक्य या अनुच्छेदों को कहते हैं जिसमें कोई बात सुन्दर ढंग से या बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण तरीके से कही गयी हो। सुवचन, सूक्ति, अनमोल वचन, आदि शब्द भी इसके लिये प्रयुक्त होते हैं।

संस्कृत सुभाषित - भाग १२


नारीकेलसमाकारा _श्यन्तेपि हि सज्ज्ना: |
अन्ये बदरिकाकाश बहिरेव मनोहर: ||

The good ('sajjan') people are like a coconut - Harsh/Rough from outside but very soft and sweet from inside. In contrast the bad ('durjan') people are like berry - only soft from outside, but hard from inside! Just as coconut does not 'look' nice, the 'sajjan' people at first sight may seem to be harsh in their talk and attitude - But in reality their mind is pure. The 'durjan' people may 'look' nice with their sweet talk, but in their minds they will be crooked. What this suBAshita teaches us is that don't be 'nice' and 'good' in your external look - that is not important, but be 'nice'/'good'/'sweet'/'pure' from inside - from your mind. After all beauty is God given - whereas it is in one's hand to make one's mind more and more beautiful!


वॄत्तं यत्नेन संरक्षेद् वित्तमायाति याति च |
अक्षीणो वित्तत: क्षीणो वॄत्ततस्तु हतो हत: ||

One shall protect his 'sheela' (good character) with efforts (not his wealth), money can be earned and lost (i.e. money is not stable, you have it today tomorrow you may lose it). A wealthy person without a good character is as good as dead.


तर्काे प्रतिष्ठ: श्रुतयो विभिन्ना ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; नैको मुनिर्यस्य वच: प्रमाणम् धर्मस्य तज्ञल्त;वं निहितं गुहायां ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; महाजनो येन गत: स पन्था:

This is by Dharamaraja in Mahabharata. It tells us how difficult it is to decide what is good or bad. Logic is unstable (i.e. one can draw any conclusions depending on his knowledge and intelligence, and these conclusions may change greatly due to slight changes in available knowledge). Shruti or Veda will give different opinions (different Vedas will have conflicts over an issue). Every Rishi/Muni will have his own opinion, and there is nothing to believe that one is better than another. Philosophy of dharma is very difficult to understand. So, the path followed by great persons, is the right path.


सुखंज्ञन्ब्स्प; शेते सत्यवक्ता सुखंज्ञन्ब्स्प; शेते मितव्ययी |
हितभुक् मितभुक् चैव तथैव विजितेन्द्रिय: ||

ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; चरक

The one who speaks truth, one who spends less, One who eats nutritional food in limited quantity and the one who has conquered the senses, gets peaceful sleep.


परित्यजेदर्थकामौ यौ स्यातां धर्मवर्जितौ |
धर्मं चाप्यसुखोदर्कं लोकनिकॄष्टमेव च ||


Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires, if they are opposed to Dharma (the sacred law); and even Dharma, which may cause pain in future (or result in pain in future) and is condemned by the people or is offensive to the people.

This suBAshita by Maharshi Manu proves the broad mindedness of the Hindu Culture. Ofcourse The 'Dharma' referred here is the 'Yuga-Dharma' and not the 'Sanatan' Dharma. This provision in our culture to frame the new 'Yuga-Dharma' which is relevant for that 'Yuga' (Period) is what has helped our culture to be always relevant in all the 'Yugas'. We don't say that the laws made by some 'great' person/'holy' book - one thousand years ago should be valid and implemented even today! The flowing water is always fresh while the still water develops insects and bacterias!

More on 'Dharma' in suBAshita Nos. 17,67,140,144,235.


श्रद्धाभक्तिसमायुक्ता नान्यकार्येषु लालसा: |
वाग्यता: शुचयश्चैव श्रोतार: पुण्यशालिन: ||

Those listeners only are meritorious, who have faith and devotion and have no further desire except grasping the subject, have control over their speech and are holy (or pure).

We ourselves may have commented many times on the speech of some Lecturer/'Kirtan-Kaar'/Social Workers/Good Politicians etc. and may have pointed out the mistakes in the speech and that of the person also! But this suBAshita is for Listeners! Without the qualities mentioned in the suBAshita, the listener or the seeker cannot really "Realize" or "Live" the Truth/Philosophy that the orator is trying to explain. Even being a Good Listener is so difficult!


भेदे गणा: विनश्येयु: भिन्नास्तु सुजया: परै: तस्मात् संघातयोगेन प्रयतेरन् गणा: सदा

In ancient India, there were states called 'gaNarAjya'. These states did not have any king, and were governed by government similar to present democracy. This subhashita is about such gaNarAjya. Whenever unity in unions (societies or gaNarAjya) is broken, they get destroyed, because if they are not united, it is easy for their enemies to conquer them. That's why unions (societies) should always try to be united. We can find many subhashitas in Sanskrit or in other Indian languages that tell us importance of unity in general, and with respect to defence. If we turn pages of our history, we will find that India was, and is, strong in all respects. But, we have a serious lacking, that is devoid of unity, which helps our enemies. Everyone of us should try to help our motherland by uniting our brothers.


परवाच्येषु निपुण: सर्वो भवति सर्वदा आत्मवाच्यं न जानीते जानन्नपि च मुह्मति

Every one is always expert in finding out (and talking about) falts/shortcommings of another person. He either does not know his own faults or even after knowing he keeps quiet about it.


गौरवं प्राप्यते दानात् न तु वित्तस्य संचयात् |
स्थिति: उच्चै: पयोदानां पयोधीनां अध: स्थिति: ||

Fame is obtained by donating (giving) money, not collecting it. Clouds (givers of water) have a high position whereas the seas (reservoirs of water) have a low position.


नारून्तुद: स्यादार्तोपि न परद्रोहकर्मधी: |
ययास्योद्विजते वाचा नालोक्यां तामुदीरयेत् ||


Let him not, even though pained by others (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick; let him not injure others in thought or deed; let him not utter words, which would pain others and prevent him from gaining heaven.


कर्पूरधूलिरचितालवाल: कस्तूरिकापंकनिमग्ननाल:, गंगाजलै: सिक्तसमूलवाल: स्वीयं गुणं मुञ्चति किं पलाण्डु:

If an onion plant is grown in camphor bed, musk is used as a soil for it, or it is watered with Ganga-jala (the holiest of the waters), will it give up its characteristic pungent odour? The central idea is that a person's basic character remains the same, no matter what efforts you take to change him.


जलबिन्दुनिपातेन क्रमश: पूर्यते घट: स हेतु: सर्वविद्यानां धर्मस्य च धनस्य च

If water is added to a vessel drop by drop, it gets filled slowly. Similarly, knowledge, dharma (punnya, virtuous deeds), and wealth are to be earned slowly. This subhashita says that don't ever miss to gain a small amount of knowledge, dharma or wealth, because any small amount actually adds in your treasure.


सेवक: स्वामिनं द्वेष्टि कॄपणं परुषाक्षरम् आत्मानं किं स न द्वेष्टि सेव्यासेव्यं न वेत्ति य:

A servant hates his master if the master is miser and rough in talking. Why doesn't he hate himself as he can not judge who is worthy of serving and who is not? Normally people tend to blame the surroundings for their sufferings. Most of the times the cause of trouble is oneself and not his surroundings.


ऐक्यं बलं समाजस्य तदभावे स दुर्बल: तस्मात ऐक्यं प्रशंसन्ति दॄढं राष्ट्र हितैषिण:

Unity is the strength of any society and it (society) is weak without unity. Hence wellwishers of the nation strongly praise unity.


का त्वं बालेज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; कान्चनमाला कस्या: पुत्रीज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; कनकलताया: ||

हस्ते किं तेज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; तालीपत्रं का वा रेखाज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; क ख ग घ ||

Who are you, little girl ? : ( My name is) kAnchanamAlA. Whose daughter are you ? : ( I am the daughter of) kanakalatA. What is it in your hand ? : the palm-leaf ( used as a slate or writing pad). What is the written there (on it) ? (alphabets) ka kha ga gha


अप्यब्धिपानान्महत: सुमेरून्मूलनादपि |
अपि वहन्यशनात् साधो विषमश्चिज्ञल्त;ानिग्रह: ||

O good man! The control over mind is more difficult than drinking the water of entire ocean, uprooting the Meru mountain and also licking or eating the fire . (The control over the mind is more difficult than all the impossible things mentioned above). But then the question of how to make this impossible task - possible is unanswered by this subhaashita.


अधीत्य चतुरो वेदान् सर्वशास्त्राण्यनेकश: |
ब्रम्ह्मतत्वं न जानाति दर्वी सूपरसं यथा ||

Mere reading of the four vedas and all the shastras number of times, is not enough for obtaining the real knowledge of Brahman (Realisation of the supreme being), Just as a spoon in a vessel used for serving, does not get the taste of the thing served from that pot. (For realisation of highest principle, listening the shastras, meditating on them, and their constant study, observing of the restrictions etc. are necessary.)


यस्य चिज्ञल्त;ां निर्विषयं )दयं यस्य शीतलम् |
तस्य मित्रं जगत्सर्वं तस्य मुक्ति: करस्थिता ||

He, whose mind is free from objects of senses and whose heart is calm (free from passion, anger, greed etc.), entire world is his friend and liberation or emancipation is as if in his hand only. (He is as good as liberated).


अज्ञाम्प;ान तिमिरांधस्य ज्ञाम्प;ानांजन शलाकया चक्षुरुन्मिलितं येन तस्मै श्री गुरवे नम:

Salute to the guru, who opens eyes of a person blind due to darkness of ignorance, by knowledge (GYAna). Guru is one of the most honourable personalities in Indian (Hindu) tradition. This Subhashita demonstrates Guru's role in one's life. Difference between an ignorant person and a knowledgeable person is stated as difference between a blind and a person with normal eyesight. Guru is a person who gives sight to otherwise blind person. On the day of Ashaadh pournima (full moon day in Ashaadh month of Hindu calendar), called Guru pournima, Hindu's show their respect to their Guru by sacrificing something for him.


क्षमा शस्त्रं करे यस्य दुर्जन: किं करिष्यतिज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
अतॄणे पतितो वन्हि: स्वयमेवोपशाम्यति ||

What can a wicked person do to someone who has the weapon of fogivance in his hands ? Fire fallen on ground without any grass extinguishes by itself.


ग्रन्थानभ्यस्य मेघावी ज्ञाम्प;ान विज्ञाम्प;ानतत्पर: |
पलालमिव धान्यार्थी त्यजेत् सर्वमशेषत: ||

An intelligent man, eager to have knowledge and wisdom, studies the books and discards what is unimportant, grasping the essence (only) just as a farmer abandons useless husk completely and picks essential grains only.

297 असूयैकपदं मॄत्यु: अतिवाद: श्रियो वध: |
अशुश्रूषा त्वरा श्लाघा विद्याया: शत्रवस्त्रय: ||

In case of a student envy is (sudden) death, to much talking is the destruction of wealth. Unwillingness to serve, haste and boasting (or self-praise) these are enemies of learning.


नालसा: प्राप्नुवन्त्यर्थान न शठा न च मायिन: न च लोकरवाद्भीता न च शश्वत्प्रतीक्षिण:

A lazy person can never earn wealth (or he can never achieve any thing), neither a wicked person, nor a rogue. The one who worries about others' reactions about his deeds, and the one who waits for long time (for good opportunity) also can not earn wealth. A person must be very active, honest, loyal, confident and quick in actions, in order to achieve his goal.


दातव्यं भोक्तव्यंज्ञन्ब्स्प; धनविषये संचयो न कर्तव्य: |
पश्येह मधुकरीणां संचितार्थ हरन्त्यन्ये ||

It should be given(donated) or enjoyed and spent. As far as money is concerned it should never be stocked up. Look here, the collected savings of the bees are stolen by others.


या कुन्देन्दुतुषारहारधवला या शुभ्रवस्त्रावॄता , या वीणावरदण्डमण्डितकरा या श्वेतपद्मासना |
या ब्रह्माच्युतशङ्करप्रभॄतिभिर्देवै: सदा वन्दिता , सा मां पातु सरस्वती भगवती नि:शेषजाड्यापहाज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

The one who is as white (beautiful) as kundapushpa ( jasmine or lily flower-two from two different dictionaries), moon or a garland of dewdrops, whose attire is white, whose hand is decorated with Veena (a string instrument), who is sitting on a white lotus, who is always worshipped by Gods like BrahmA, VishNu and Mahesh, Let the Godess SaraswatI, who puts an end to lethargy, protect me!