संस्कृत सुभाषित

सुभाषित (सु+भाषित = सुन्दर ढंग से कही गयी बात) ऐसे शब्द-समूह, वाक्य या अनुच्छेदों को कहते हैं जिसमें कोई बात सुन्दर ढंग से या बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण तरीके से कही गयी हो। सुवचन, सूक्ति, अनमोल वचन, आदि शब्द भी इसके लिये प्रयुक्त होते हैं।

संस्कृत सुभाषित - भाग ११


यस्य भार्या गॄहे नास्ति साध्वी च प्रिायवादिनी |
अरण्यं तेन गन्तव्यं यथाऽरण्यं तथा गॄहम् ||

A person whose wife lacks the good conduct (Is not a 'saadhvi') and sweet language, such a person should leave home and go to forest because for him, there should be no difference between a forest and his own home!


अकॄत्यं नैव कर्तव्य प्रााणत्यागेऽपि संस्थिते |
न च कॄत्यं परित्याज्यम् एष धर्म: सनातन: ||

The work which is not to be done (because it is bad) should not be done even if you have to loose your life. And the work which has to be done (because it is your duty) - should be continued to be done even if it costs your own life! This is the sanatana Dharma.


ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंस: संगस्तेषूपजायते |
संगात् संजायते काम: कामात् क्रोधोऽभिजायते ||

भगवद्गीता 262

“While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises”. The attachment (and hence the desire to attain) for an object develops in the first place by perceiving it through the senses. When such desire is not fulfilled, then there comes anger in the heart (due to frustration of the desire) Therefore the best policy is to not even think about the sense objects and thus live simply and happily. For, the more one thinks, the more one desires; the more one desires, the more one gets frustrated, and the more one gets frustrated, the more one gets angry.


नात्यन्त गुणवत् किंचित् न चाप्यत्यन्तनिर्गुणम् उभयं सर्वकार्येषु दॄष्यते साध्वसाधु वा

There is no work which is good in all respects. There is no work bad in all respects. Both good and bad points are present in every work.


एकत: क्रतव: सर्वे सहस्त्रवरदक्षिणा |
अन्यतो रोगभीतानां प्रााणिनां प्रााणरक्षणम् ||


On one side is an act of performing 'Yadnya' and donating generously for the same and on the other side is an act of giving an helping hand to the poor/needy and curing the diseased ones. Both these acts will earn for you the same 'Punya'.


मातॄवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत् |
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु य: पश्यति स पश्यति ||

Those who are 'dharmic' in nature (Have noble qualities), consider all the women (Except one's own wife) as mothers - consider other's wealth as dust (Have no intention to acquire other's wealth by any meanes) - and consider all the other living creatures like themselves (Equally love all the living creatures as one would love himself/herself)!


य: स्वभावो हि यस्यास्ति स नित्यं दुरतिक्रम: श्वा यदि क्रियते राजा तत् किं नाश्नात्युपानहम्

Whatever be the nature of a person, it is always very difficult to change. If a dog is appointed as King, even then he will not stop biting shoes. That is, he will keep on doing all the inferior things which he is otherwise used to.


नात्युच्चशिखरो मेरुर्नातिनीचं रसातलम् व्यवसायद्वितीयानां नात्यपारो महोदधि:

For a person who is seconded by activities (i.e. for a person who depends on his own efforts), peak of a mountain is not very high (is not hard to climb), bottom of earth (centre of earth) is not very deep and an ocean is not difficult to cross.


दूर्जन: परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलङ्कॄतोऽपि सन्ज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
मणिना भूषित: सर्प: किमसौ न भयङ्कर:ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||

One should avoid crooked person even if he/she is educated. Isn't snake adorned with gem, dangerous?


सुखमापतितंज्ञन्ब्स्प; सेव्यं दु:खमापतितं तथा |
चक्रवत् परिवर्तन्ते दु:खानि च सुखानि चज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||


Take pleasure from the joys (in life) and also accept the sorrows; for joys and sorrows keep changing in a cycle.


अज्ञाम्प;ेभ्यो ग्रन्थिन:ज्ञन्ब्स्प; श्रेष्ठा: ग्रन्थिभ्यो धारिणो वरा: |
धारिभ्यो ज्ञाम्प;ानिन: श्रेष्ठा: ज्ञाम्प;ानिभ्यो व्यसायिन: ||

Those who can read books are better than the illiterates. Better than the readers of the book are those who also understand the meaning of the books. Better than those who understand the meaning of the books are the one who know / experience the supreme reality and even better are those who put in practice the knowledge that they have gained from the books!


उभाभ्यामेव पक्षाभ्यां शथा खे पक्षिणां गति: |
तथैव ज्ञाम्प;ानकर्मभ्यां जायते परमं पदम् ||

योगवा| 117

Just as the bird can fly high with the help of it's two wings, in the same way with the help of knowledge ('dnyaana') and duly performance of one's own duties ('karma') - one can attain the supreme reality.


मनसा चिन्तितंकर्मं वचसा न प्रकाशयेत् |
अन्यलक्षितकार्यस्य यत: सिद्धिर्न जायते ||

If you are thinking of doing some work, don't tell it (to others). If others get to know it, it won't succeed. There are some people who talk a lot and don't do much. Perhaps this Subhashit is meant or such people. Subhashitkar is telling us to 'do' rather than 'tell' your intentions to other.


गतेर्भंग: स्वरो हीनो गात्रे स्वेदो महद्भयम्ज्ञन्ब्स्प; |
मरणे यानि चि*नानि तानि चि*नानि याचके ||

Loosing balance while walking, talking in low voice (not able to talk properly), sweating, and fear, all this are signs found in a person who is about to die, same signs are found in yAchaka, i.e. a person who is asking help from others (a person who is dependent on others).


शुश्रूषा श्रवणं चैव ग्रहणं धारणं तथा |
उहापोहोर्थ विज्ञाम्प;ानं तत्वज्ञाम्प;ानं च धीगुणा: ||

Willing to listen, to actually listen, to understand what we listen, to be able to remember what we have listened, to be able to deduce some conclusions and put forth arguments, to be able to formalise and conclusively put forth the thought, knowledge of the around and Philosophy - these are the eight facets of 'buddhi'.


द्वयक्षरस् तु भवेत् मॄत्युर् , त्रयक्षरमं ब्रा*म शाश्वतम् |
'मम' इति च भवेत् मॄत्युर, 'नमम' इति च शाश्वतम् ||

महाभारत शांतिपर्व

'mR^ityu' (Death) is a two letter word while 'brahma' (The ultimate reality) - the non-perishable - is a three letter word. The word 'mama' (Mine) is also a two letter word and thus will lead you to 'mR^ityu' - but the word 'namama' (Not Mine) is a three letter word and will thus lead you to the 'brahma' (The ultimate reality)! Nothing in this world "is mine" - I am not the "owner/creator" of any thing in this world - "idam na mama" (This is not mine) - I am only an care taker or trustee of the so-called things owned by me! One should think and act keeping this in mind.


रविरपि न दहति तादॄग् यादॄक् संदहति वालुकानिकर: अन्यस्माल्लब्धपदो नीच: प्रायेण दु:सहो भवति

Direct Sun (light) does not burn us (our skin) as much as a hot sand dune does. (Similarly) A mediocre person who becomes great (or powerful) due to another person (like sand dune getting hot due to Sunlight) is often annoying.


क्वचिद्भूमौ शय्या क्वचिदपि पर्यङ्कशयनं ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; क्वचिच्छाकाहारी क्वचिदपि च शाल्योदनरुचि: क्वचित्कन्थाधारी क्वचिदपि च दिव्याम्बरधरो ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प;ज्ञन्ब्स्प; मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दु:खं न च सुखम्

Sometimes he will sleep on floor, sometimes on bed. Sometimes he will eat vegetables, sometimes rice and bread. Sometimes he will wear worn cloths, sometimes very rich cloths. A person who is dedicated for a certain cause/work is never bothered of (such external) difficulties of facilities. In short, a devoted person is unaffected by all the things which are not related to his cause.


रामो राजमणि: सदा विजयते रामं रमेशं भजे रामेणाभिहता निशाचरचमू रामाय तस्मै नम: रामान्नास्ति परायणं परतरं रामस्य दासोस्म्यहम् रामे चित्तलय: सदा भवतु मे भो राम मामुद्धर ||

रामरक्षा स्तोत्र

Rama, the jewel among the kings, Him I worship, by Him the hordes demons have been destroyed, to him is said my prayer, beyond Him there is nothing to be worshipped, His servant I am, my mind is totally absorbed in Him, O Ram, please lift me up. (The speciality of this verse from rAmarakSha is, it gives all the eight declensions of the singular word rAma. Hats off to the composer, Budhakaushik Rishi)


मनोजवं मारूततुल्यवेगं जितेन्द्रियं बुद्धिमतां वरिष्ठम् |
वातात्मजं वानरयूथमुख्यं श्रीरामदूतं शरणं प्रपद्ये ||

रामरक्षा स्तोत्र

I take refuge in the lord Hanuman who is as fast as the mind, equals his father, the wind-God, in speed, is the master of the senses, the foremost amongst the learned, the leader of the Monkey forces and the great messenger of Shri Rama .


आचाराल्लभते ह्मयु: आचारादीप्सिता: प्राजा: |
आचाराद्धनमक्षय्यम् आचारो हन्त्यलक्षणम् ||


Good conduct gives long life, desired well-behaved progeny and ever-lasting wealth (i.e. prosperity). so also by good conduct other defects are destroyed. (i.e.They become ineffective.) The suBAshikAr wants to stress that achieving all the good things in the life does not depend on others but rather than on the 'individual' only! And the method is also very simple - "Good Conduct" !


शोचन्ति जामयो यत्र विनश्यत्याशु तत्कुलम् |
यत्रैतास्तु न शोचन्ति ह्मप्रासीदन्ति) वर्धते तद्धि सर्वदा ||

मनु| 357

The family in which women folks (such as mother, wife, sister, daughter etc.) are full of sorrow that family meets its destruction very soon; while the family in which thay have not to grieve is always prosperous. Gender equality etc. are the terms evolved in last few hundred years. But here in Hindu's ancient literature one can find not just dry words but sincere and pure feelings for making entire humankind happy.


अप्रकटीकॄतशक्ति: शक्तोपि जनस्तिरस्क्रियां लभते निवसन्नन्तर्दारुणि लङ्घ्यो व*िनर्न तु ज्वलित:

Strength of a powerful person is ignored if he does not show it to others (if others areunaware). As far as energy is stored in wood, no body is bothered about it. But when same wood starts burning, they are scared of that.


विक्लवो वीर्यहीनो य: स दैवमनुवर्तते वीरा: संभावितात्मानो न दैवं पर्युपासते

A powerless timid person believes in fortune (i.e. relies on external forces for his own progress). A powerful person with self esteem does not give any importance to fortune. This subhashita tells us that a person himself is responsible for whatever happens in his life. So he must 'act' if he wants to do any progress. He can not blame his fortune.


यथा वायुं समाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्वजन्तव: |
तथा गॄहस्थमाश्रित्य वर्तन्ते सर्व आश्रमा: ||

मनु| 377

Just as, (in this world) all the (living) beings exist, depending on (with the help of) air (vAyu), in the same way, all the other stages of life (i.e. Ashramas) exist depending on the stage of a house-holder (i.e. Grhasthashrama).