संस्कृत सुभाषित

सुभाषित (सु+भाषित = सुन्दर ढंग से कही गयी बात) ऐसे शब्द-समूह, वाक्य या अनुच्छेदों को कहते हैं जिसमें कोई बात सुन्दर ढंग से या बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण तरीके से कही गयी हो। सुवचन, सूक्ति, अनमोल वचन, आदि शब्द भी इसके लिये प्रयुक्त होते हैं।

संस्कृत सुभाषित - भाग ५


अङ्गणवेदी वसुधा कुल्या जलधि: स्थली च पातालम् |
वाल्मिक: च सुमेरू: कॄतप्रतिज्ञाम्प;स्य धीरस्य ||

For a person who has a firm conviction (mind is firm (krutapratijnasya)), this earth is like a little garden, sea is like a small canal/dam, 'paatal' (there is no parallel concept in english) is like a picnic spot (ramya sthal) and the Meru mountain is like an ant's house ('vaarul')! This means that if you have a firm conviction, hurdles in the way do not mean much. you have ways to tackle them.


येषां न विद्या न तपो न दानं ज्ञाम्प;ानं न शीलं न गुणो न धर्म: |
ते मत्र्यलोके भुविभारभूता मनुष्यरूपेण मॄगाश्चरन्ति ||

A person who is not educated, who is not ready to work hard, who does not donate whatever he has, who does not have knowledge, who does not have a good character, good qualities and one who does not obey dharma, such a person on this earth is just a useless person, he is as good as any other animal. please see subhashit no 18 which also distinguishes between a human and other animals.


माता मित्रं पिता चेति स्वभावात् त्रतयं हितम् |
कार्यकारणतश्चान्ये भवन्ति हितबुद्धय: ||

Mother, father and friend are the one who think about our interests (well-being) in a very much natural manner. [It's part of their nature ('swaBAv').They think this without expecting any thing in return.] All others having the similar feelings towards us do so due to their personal benefits or any other reason [It is not part of their nature ('swaBAv')].


क: काल: कानि मित्राणि को देश: को व्ययागमौ |
कस्याहं का च मे शक्ति: इति चिन्त्यं मुहुर्मुहु: ||


"How is situation around me (i.e. is it favourable or not)? who are (my) friends? how is condition in the country? what are the things for and against me (or what do I have and what I don't have)? who am I? what are my strengths?" one should always worry about these questions. Subhashitkar is suggesting us that we must be always alert and consider all this prior to any action.


वदनं प्रसादसदनं सदयं )दयं सुधामुचो वाच: |
करणं परोपकरणं येषां केषां न ते वन्द्या: ||

A person whose face is always charming/enthusiastic, his heart full of compassion, his speech like 'Amrut' (I think there is no equivalent word for 'Amrut' in english. Here it means sweet speech i.e. speech which will always give pleasure to the listener) and whose work is to always help the needy ('paropkAr'), then tell me for whom such a person will not be the most respected ('vandaneeya') one? Very small and practical points - if we are successful in imbibing these in ourselves then surely we will be the better humans than today!


अनाहूत: प्रविशति अपॄष्टो बहु भाषते |
अविश्वस्ते विश्वसिति मूढचेता नराधम: ||


Subhashitkar has given some of the characteristics of a fool person here. He says, a fool person comes without invitation (he lands up anywhere even if he is not required i.e. he does not have self respect), talk even if not asked for (they have habit of poking his nose in other's business), and trusts a person who is not trustable (he is not able to evaluate others properly)


र्इशावास्यमिदं सर्वं यत् किञ्च जगत्यां जगत् |
तेन त्यक्तेन भुञ्जीथा मा गॄध: कस्यस्विद् धनम् ||

र्इशोपनिषद् 1

This 'shloka' is from Ishavasya upanishad. Here I am giving two explanations of this shloka. One is from the book:- Sanskrit Subhashit Navnet, published by Jamnabai Narsee Adhyatmik trust. Another is from one article. This is a not a suBAshit as such but as it has good teaching in it we are sending it to the group. In this moving world, whatever moves is enveloped (is prevaded) by God. Therefore, you find your enjoyment (or protect yourself) by offering it to him (i.e. by renunciation) [To whom does the wealth belong? It belongs to no one] Be no greedy to what belongs to others. Whatever animate or inanimate objects we witness in this world are the abode of the Almighty. Enjoy it with a sense of renunciation, do not grab, because it belongs to nobody i.e. the resources of the world belong to God and it is for his pleasure that they ought to be used.


गर्वाय परपीडायै दुर्जस्य धनं बलम् |
सज्जनस्य तु दानाय रक्षणाय च ते सदा ||

Wealth and strength of a wicked person is for his vanity(show off) and (ability) to trouble others (respectively). for a good person, they are always for donating (or say sharing with others) and to protect (others) (respectively).


यथाचिज्ञल्त;ां तथा वाचो यथा वाचस्तथा क्रिया: |
चिज्ञल्त;ो वाचि क्रियायांच साधुनामेकरूपता ||

What is in mind should be reflected in one's speech (yaTA chittam taTA vAcho). What is in one's speech should be reflected in one's actions (yaTA vAchataTA kriyHa). Thus the person whose mind, speech and actions are same is a 'sADhu' (I don't think 'gentlemen' is a word anywhere close to the meaning of word 'SADhu'! Meanings of some words can be best appreciated in that language only.).


सत्यं वद , धर्मं चर , स्वाध्यायान्मा प्रमद: |
आचार्याय प्रियं धनमाहॄत्य प्रजातन्तुं मा व्यवच्छेत्सी:ज्ञन्ब्स्प; ||


[This subhashita is an advice to a bhachelor coming out of Gurukula after finishing his studies, before entering into Gruhasthashrama.]

Speak truth, beahave as dharma dictates (dharmAcharan), do not miss swAdhyAy. ( Literally, swadhyay means self-study. ) After paying Gurudakshina (fees) to the guru (teacher), do not stop family propagation. (by entering into Gruhasthashrama)


विवेक: सह संपत्या विनयो विद्यया सह |
प्रभुत्वं प्रश्रयोपेतं चिन्हमेतन्महात्मनाम् ||

This is the indication of great people that (they have) discretion along with wealth, humbleness along with scholarship, (and) power with courteousness. Note that this suBAshit has some similarity to that of suBAshit No. 05


ये के च अस्माकंज्ञन्ब्स्प; श्रेयांसो ब्राह्मणा: तेषां त्वया आासनेन प्रश्र्वसितव्यम् |
श्रद्धया देयम् , अश्रद्धया अदेयम् , श्रिया देयम् , ह्रिया देयम् , भिया देयम् , संविदा देयम् ||


Those who are superior Brahman, you offer them seat with respect. (Treat them with great respect.) Donate wholeheartedly. Do not give unwillingly. Donate without hesitation. Donate politely. (Do not donate for fame). Donate by fear. ( Feel afraid about being narrow minded) Donate with compassion.


वज्रादपि कठोराणि मॄदूनि कुसुमादपि |
लोकोज्ञल्त;ाराणां चेतांसि को हि विज्ञाम्प;ातुमर्हति ||

The minds of extraordinary people are harder than (even) the thunderbolt and softer than (even) the flowers; who in this world is capable of discerning them properly? Just pay attention to the two extreme qualities of mind that suBAshitKar has mentioned and further to be present in the same human being! Still further to have the 'vivek' to decide under which circumstances what state of mind should be there and to act accordingly!!


संसारविषवॄक्षस्यज्ञन्ब्स्प; द्वे एव मधुरे फले |
सुभाषितं च सुस्वादु सद्भिश्र्च सह संगम: ||

Poisonous tree (in the form of materialistic world ) has only two sweet fruits. Sweetest Subhashit and company of good people !


धॄति: क्षमा दमोऽस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रह: |
धीर्विद्या सत्यमक्रोधो दशकं धर्मलक्षणम् ||

Fortitude, forgivefulness, (self) control, non stealing, purity, withdrawal of senses, intelligence, learning, truth, non-anger (these) ten qualities constitute the characteristics of 'Dharma'.

This suBAshit along with suBAshit No. 17 explains what 'Dharma' is. Please note that there is no equivalent word in english for 'Dharma'. The english word 'Religion' is not at all even close to what 'Dharma' is in samskrit language. Other suBAshitas where the word 'Dharma' occurs are SuBAshit Nos. 22,67,80,127,135. All these subaashitas will help in understanding of what actually 'Dharma' means in our culture.


मितं च सारं च वचो हि वाग्मिता |

This subhasita befits the nature of Sanskrit language perfectly. It contains esential truth and is as concise as the meaning itself. Thus Sanskrit is the language of true eloquence.

On the other hand, even if one cannot speak Sanskrit, the test of his eloquence is how well he can put esential truth in only a few words - and that is actually the advice of this subhashita.


श्रेयश्च प्रेयश्च मनुष्यमेत: तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीर: |
श्रेयो हि धीरोभिप्रेयसो वॄणीते प्रेयो मन्दो षोगक्षेमाद् वॄणीते ||

Both the good (Shreyas) and the pleasant (Preyas) approch the man. The wise man pondering over them, makes his choice. The wise chooses the good (Shreyas) in preference to the pleasant (Preyas). The fool (simple-minded) for the sake of worldly-being prefers the pleasant (preyas)


मत्रस्य मा चक्षुषा सर्वाणि भूतानि समीक्षन्ताम् |
मित्रस्याहं चक्षुषा सर्वाणि भूतानि समीक्षे मित्रस्य चक्षुषा समीक्षामहे ||


All living beings in this world should see me with an amiable eye. I should (also) look at all the living beings with a friendly eye. (I should be very loving and affectionate to all living beings on this earth.) We all should see each other with a friendly eye. (We all should be sympathetic and loving to each other.)


श्रॄयताम् धर्मसर्वस्वं श्रॄत्वा चैवावधार्यताम् |
आत्मन: प्रतिकूलानि परेषां न समाचरेत् ||

Please listen to the essence of Dharma (i.e. piety) and having listened to it, bear in mind. The essence of Dharma is: Whatever is adverse (or Unfavourable) to us, we should not adopt (operate) that in case of others.


इन्द्रं मित्रं वरूणमग्निमाहुरथो दिव्य: स सुपर्णाे गरूत्मान् |
ज्ञख्8216;एकं सद् विप्रा बहुधा वदन्तिज्ञख्8217; अग्निं यमं मातरिश्र्वानमाहु: ||

Indra, Surya (the sun), Varun (the rain), Agni (the fire), Garuda with divine and beautiful wings, Yama (the God of Death) and Vayu (the wind) are all the manifestations of the same satyaswarup (closest meaning righteous, veracious ) God. The wise call this spirit by different names given above.


आदित्यचन्द्रावनिलोऽनलश्र्चद्यौर्भूमिरापो हॄदयं यमश्र्च |
अहश्र्च रात्रिश्र्च उभे च संध्ये धर्माेऽपि जानाति नरस्य वॄत्तम् ||


Aditya (The Sun), Chandra (The Moon), Vayu (The wind), Agni (The fire), Akash (The Space), Prithvi ( The Earth), Jala (The Water), Hridaya (Heart), Yama (The death), both Sandhikalas (Dawn and Dusk) and Dharma, witness what man does.


पूर्वजन्मकॄतं कर्म तद् दैवमिति कथ्यते |
तस्मात् पुरूषकारेण यत्नं कुर्यादतन्द्रित: ||


The karma of previous birth is called as daiva (fortune) (in this birth). So, one should try and work hard (in this birth ) without relaxation.


षड् दोषा: पुरूषेणेह हातव्या भूतिमिच्छता |
निद्रा तन्द्रा भयं क्रोध: आलस्यं दीर्घसूत्रता ||


One who wishes to prosper in this world, should keep back the following six faults sleep (too much), lethargy, fear, anger, laziness and miserliness (stinginess). The six faults can be interpreted as follows:- nidrA :- sleep i.e. ignorance, not knowing what is happening around. tandrA :- lethargy, lassitude. bhaya :- fear. krodh :- anger, short temper. aalsyam :- laziness. diirghasuutrataa :- procrastinate, one who is slow in acting, takes too long for decisions etc.


ये केचिद् दु:खिता लोके सर्वे ते स्वसुखेच्छया |
ये केचित् सुखिता लोके सर्वे तेऽन्यसुखेच्छया ||

Whatever persons are unhappy in this world, they are so because of their desire (greed) for their own happiness. While those who are happy in this world, they are so, because of their desire for the happiness of others. People are miserable because they strive for their happiness and do not obtain it, while those who strive or exert to make others happy become themselves happy!


अभ्दि: गात्राणि शुध्यन्ति मन: सत्येन शुध्यति |
विद्यातपोभ्यां भूतात्मा बुध्दिज्ञाम्पर्;ानेन शुध्यति ||


Senses (Sense-Organs) are purified by water; Mind is purified by truth; Soul is purified by learning and penance; While intelligence is purified by knowledge.