संस्कृत सुभाषित

सुभाषित (सु+भाषित = सुन्दर ढंग से कही गयी बात) ऐसे शब्द-समूह, वाक्य या अनुच्छेदों को कहते हैं जिसमें कोई बात सुन्दर ढंग से या बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण तरीके से कही गयी हो। सुवचन, सूक्ति, अनमोल वचन, आदि शब्द भी इसके लिये प्रयुक्त होते हैं।

संस्कृत सुभाषित - भाग २

तैलाद् रक्षेत् जलाद् रक्षेत् रक्षेत् शिथिल बंधनात |
मूर्ख हस्ते न दातव्यं एवं वदति पुस्तकम् ||

A book says: Protect me from oil (Oily products which leave a mark on the page); Protect me from water; Also protect me from the loose binding; And after doing all this please do not hand me over to a 'Murkha' (unintelligent) person!!

श्रोत्रं श्रुतेनैव न कुण्डलेन दानेन पाणिर्न तु कंकणेन |
विभाति काय: करूणापराणाम् परोपकारैर्न तु चंदनेन ||

The ears of a 'sajjan' (Honest/Good) person looks more good and pleasant hearing some knowledge ('Vidya') and not by the ear-rings ('Kundal'). Donating something more suites the hand than the bangles. Like wise the body of a 'sajjan' person more suites by doing favours on others ('paropkar') than application of sandalwood's cream to itself.

भाषासु मुख्या मधुरा दिव्या गीर्वाणभारती |
तस्यां हि काव्यम् मधुरं तस्मादपि सुभाषितम् ||

Amongst languages, language of gods (girvANbharati - Sanskrit) is sweet, in that poetry is beautiful and still in that subhAshit.

उदारस्य तॄणं वित्तं शूरस्य मरणं तॄणं |
विरक्तस्य तॄणं भार्या निस्पॄहस्य तॄणं जगत् ||

For a generous person, money or wealth is insignificant (is equivalent to grass). For a brave person, death has no value (or it is no cause of worry). For a selfless (virakta) person, his family is insignificant. And for a person who has no desires (nispRha), this world is of no interest.

विद्वत्वं च नॄपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन |
स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते ||

Ruler ship and learning is not comparable any time. king gets respect from his own country where as learned person gets it from everywhere.

दुर्जनेन समं सख्यं प्रीतिं चापि न कारयेत् |
उष्णो दहति चांगार: शीत: कॄष्णायते करम् ||

One should avoid friendship or warm relationship with wicked person. (like a coal). if hot (he) burns (your hands) if cold, (he) blackens (your) hands. (i.e. if he is bad to you, they will surely cause some problem to you, but even if he is good to you, contact alone will cause some problem).

द्राक्षा म्लानमुखी जाता शर्करा चाश्मतां गता |
सुभाषितरसस्याग्रे सुधा भीता दिवं गता ||

Here the poet describes the supremacy of Subhashitas. On this earth the RASA(implied meaning) of subhashitas is so sweet that the grapes felt ashamed (of its sweetness) and crestfallen. The sweeter sugar got hard (Ashma - stone ) and the sweetest AMRITA ( necter) pulled itself back to the heaven.

चिन्तनीया हि विपदां आदावेव प्रतिक्रिया |
न कूपखननं युक्तं प्रदीप्ते वन्हिना गॄहे ||

It is improper to start digging the well after the house has caught fire! We should be pro-active i.e. we should have the solutions ready even before some problem comes to us.

एकं विषरसं हन्ति शस्त्रेणैकश्च वध्यते |
सराष्ट्रं सप्रजं हन्ति राजानं मंत्रविप्लव: ||

Only one person dies due to the poison; By the weapons too only one living creature can die. But due to the incorrect decisions by the king, the king himself, the whole nation and it's citizens can die!! The learned and the intelligent readers can derive the significance of the above subhaashita and understand it's implications by looking back at our history, even in the past 50 years. No need to mention specifically the sufferings caused to the Kashmiri pandits in the Kashmir valley as the result of the decisions that were made!!!

आदित्यस्य नमस्कारं ये कुर्वन्ति दिने दिने |
जन्मान्तरसहस्रेषु दारिद्रयं नोपजायते ||

The people who bow down to the Sun (perform SUryanamaskArs)everyday, poverty does not arise intheir lives for thousands of births. (The people who are punctual in their duties like Sun, never become poor.)

ज्येष्ठत्वं जन्मना नैव गुणैर्ज्येष्ठत्वमुच्यते |
गुणात् गुरुत्वमायाति दुग्धं दधि घॄतं क्रमात् ||

Greatness is not by birth, greatness is decided by qualities (of a person). As it increases from milk to curd to ghee.

उद्यमेन हि सिध्यन्ति कार्यणि न मनोरथै: |
न हि सुप्तस्य सिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मॄगा: ||

Any work will not get accomplished just merely by desiring for it’s completion. A ‘prey’ by itself doesn’t enter in to the sleeping lion’s mouth!!! By giving an example of a lion the subhashitkAra here wants to emphasize that the desire and capabilities should be added by the efforts and hard work to achieve the goal! Even if the lion has the capabilities to catch it’s prey, the prey will not automatically fall in it’s mouth!!

स्थानभ्रष्टा: न शोभते दन्ता: केशा नखा नरा: |
इति विज्ञाय मतिमान् स्वस्थानं न परित्यजेत् ||

it looks odd if teeth, hair, nails, and men are not at their proper place. knowing this, wise man never leaves his place (occupation). This subhaShitA suggests that every body should stick to his/her duty. Doing something else is not desirable.

उदये सविता रक्तो रक्त:श्चास्तमये तथा |
सम्पत्तौ च विपत्तौ च महतामेकरूपता ||
||| महाभारत

The sun looks alike while rising and setting. Great men too remain alike in both the good and bad times.

शान्तितुल्यं तपो नास्ति तोषान्न परमं सुखम् |
नास्ति तॄष्णापरो व्याधिर्न च धर्मो दयापर: ||

There is no achievement like peace (the word tapa might be used here to emphasize the efforts required to keep your mind peaceful.), there is no happiness like satisfaction, there is no disease like desire, there is no dharma like mercy.

सर्वोपनिषदो गाव: दोग्धा गोपालनंदन: |
पार्थो वत्स: सुधी: भोक्ता दुग्धं गीतामॄतं महत् ||

All Upanishads are (like)cows, Gopalnandana (Shrikrishna) is their keeper. Intelligent Partha (Arjun) is the calf who enjoys the milk and splendid GeetAmRit is the milk of these cows. (Geeta is the precise summary of all Upanishadas.)

हंस: श्वेतो बक: श्वेतो को भेदो बकहंसयो: |
नीरक्षीरविवेके तु हंस: हंसो बको बक: ||

It is said that, if one dilutes milk with water, and gives to swan, swan is able to extract milk and drink it. (dudh ka dudh pani ka pani) Swan is white, crane is (also) white. (then) what is the difference between crane and swan? when it comes to extracting milk from a mixture, swan is swan and crane is crane. i.e. crane does not have this ability. This subhashit is trying to explain that the external appearance does not make a person great but his qualities. It also explains that wise people precisely know what is useful and what is not.

काक: कॄष्णो पिक: कॄष्णो को भेदो काकपिकयो: |
वसंतसमये प्राप्ते काक: काक: पिक: पिक: ||

Crow is black, cuckoo bird is (also) black. What is the difference between crow and cuckoo bird ? (But) When spring arrives crow is crow and cuckoo bird is cuckoo bird. (With the advent of spring, cuckoo bird starts singing with its sweet voice, but crow does not have this ability.) This subhashit is exactly in lines with the previous subhashit.

अहं च त्वं च राजेन्द्र लोकनाथावुभावपि |
बहुव्रीहिरहं राजन् षष्ठीतत्पुरूषो भवान् ||

Oh! King; we both are 'LOKANATHA'. Only the difference is that I am 'bahuvrihi' ( the one whose guardians are people) and on the contrary you are 'Shashthipurush' ( the guardian of people i.e.ruler or king.)

सुलभा: पुरूषा: राजन् सततं प्रियवादिन: |
अप्रियस्य च सत्यस्य वक्ता श्रोता च दुर्लभ: ||

( This 'shlok' is from the conversation between Mahamantri Vidur and Dhritarashtra in Mahabharat. Vidur says,) Your Majesty, always good speaking people can be easily found. (But) a person speaking bitter (truth) and one who listens to him are both difficult to find.

दुर्जन: प्रियवादीति नैतद् विश्वासकारणम् |
मधुतिष्ठति जिव्हाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम् ||

Never believe a wicked person even if he is talking in (your) favor. There is honey on his toung’s tip (i.e. his language is sweet), but there is poison in his heart (i.e. his mind is full of wicked thoughts)

सर्पदुर्जनोर्मध्ये वरं सर्पो न दुर्जन: |
सर्प: दंशती कालेन दुर्जनस्तु पदे पदे ||

When it comes to comparison between a serpent and a wicked person, it is the serpent who is the better of the two. (Because,) a sperpent bites occasionally( very seldom). But, the wicked person stings(causes pain) at every step(always).

वरं एको गुणी पुत्रो न च मूर्खशतान्यपि |
एकश्चंद्रस्तमो हन्ति न च तारागणोऽपि च ||

It's better to have one good ('Gunvaan' is the exact word! i.e. the one who has many good qualities) son than to have 100 foolish ('Murkha') sons. The darkness is expelled by one single moon and not by the group of stars!!

कराग्रे वसते लक्ष्मी करमध्ये सरस्वती |
करमूले तु गोविन्द: प्रभाते करदर्शनम् ||

At the tip of the hand(fingers), is the abode of Goddess Lakshmi; in the center of the hand(the palm) stays Goddess Sarasvati. At the base of the hand(wrist), there is Lord Vishnu. Hence, in the morning, one should take a glimpse of his/her hands first. [We count money by the finger-tips. We write by holding the pen in our fingers and palm. All the work that we can do, is because of the wrists(Vishnu is the Lord of the Universe who governs its functioning). So, on waking up in the morning, one should have a "darshan" of his hands.]

विदेशेषु धनं विद्या व्यसनेषु धनं मति: |
परलोके धनं धर्म: शीलं सर्वत्र वै धनम् ||

Knowledge ('Vidya') is the real wealth, in a foreign land, So is Cleverness, at tough times. Righteousness ('Dharma') is the only wealth that can buy Heaven ('Par-lok'). Verily, Good Conduct ('Sheel') is the wealth everywhere and at all the times!